Fertigation Là Gì

Fertigation Effects on Productivity, và Soil and Plant Nutrition of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia
Apurbố Bandyopadhyay AICRP on Palms, Department of Spices và Plantation Crops, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Kalyani, WB, India
, Dipak Kumar Ghosh(LKN) AICRP on Palms, Department of Spices & Plantation Crops, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Kalyani, WB, India
, Benukar Biswas Department of Agronomy, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Mohanpur, IndiaCorrespondencebiswas.benukar
& Jagadish Timsimãng cầu Soils and Environment Group, Faculty of Veterinary và Agricultural Sciences, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Fertigation Effects on Productivity, & Soil và Plant Nutrition of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia
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ABSTRACT

Fertigation has the potential lớn reduce extra chemical load by improving nutrient và water use efficiency of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), but studies demonstrating the fertilizer reduction through drip irrigation in comparison khổng lồ conventional ring basin method are rare in the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) of South Asia. A long-term field experiment was conducted during 2007–2013 in West Bengal, India, khổng lồ study the effect of fertigation on coconut var. DXT. The experiment was laid out in a randomised complete blochồng design (RCBD) with six treatments (control – no fertilizers và water applied with drip irrigation; 25%, 1/2, 75% and 100% of the recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF), each applied with drip irrigation; and 100% of the RDF and water applied with ring basin method of irrigation (i.e., conventional method)). Nuts yield was significantly higher for 75% of RDF (24.44 t ha−1 year−1) followed by 100% of RDF, each drip irrigation (23.79 t ha−1 year−1) compared lớn control (21.89 t ha−1 year−1). Copra yield was significantly higher for 75% of RDF (3.19 t ha−1) compared to 100% of RDF (3.12 t ha−1) và no fertilizer (1.87 t ha−1). Nitrogene (N), phosphorus (P) & potassium (K) contents of soil increased by 4.9%, 10.4% và 9.4%, respectively, with 75% of RDF applied through drip irrigation. Microbial population showed inverse relationship with amount of fertilizer application. The most water-use efficient fertigation treatment was 75% RDF (13.48 kg copra m−3) followed by 100% RDF (13.18 kg copra m−3) with drip irrigation as compared lớn conventional way soil application of fertilizers through ring basin method of irrigation (4.23 kg copra m−3). Role of N on yield variability was most prominent by both available soil N status (R2 = 0.49**) và leaf N concentration (R2 = 0.51**). The study indicated that there is a great scope for reducing the N, P and K fertilizers by up to lớn 25% of the present RDFs for coconut when applied through drip irrigation compared to lớn ring basin method of irrigation for its higher productivity and profitability through efficient use of nutrients & water in the Eastern IGP of South Asia.


Introduction

Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is grown in different farming systems & soils in almost all countries of South Asia, and most notably in the coastal areas (Coconut Development Board, 2015). It is an important commercial plantation crop in India và plays an important role in the Indian economy by contributing around $105 million per year to lớn the national GDPhường (Jayakumar et al., 2015). In India, it was grown in approximately 2.08 million ha with production of 2.39 million nuts in 2016–2017. In West Bengal alone, which is in the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) of South Asia, the area under coconut was 0.30 million ha with the production of 3.75 million nuts in the same year (Coconut Development Board, 2018). Due to high cost of production and low profit, coconut cultivations are carried out with negligence và as a result coconut farming is often considered khổng lồ be a non-profitable enterprise in India.

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To make the coconut cultivation profitable, improved management practices are needed lớn increase its yield. Water & nutrients are the main inputs contributing to higher productivity of coconut (Jayakumar et al., 2017). Insufficient water is the most limiting factor in post monsoon season (December–May) in coconut palm growing regions of South Asia due khổng lồ high evaporative sầu demand in those months (Mahesha et al., 1990). Presently, scarđô thị of water, high cost of labor & energy, & inappropriate fertilizer và irrigation application methods are deterrents in adopting traditional irrigation methods for coconut. Among the various irrigation systems, drip irrigation is gaining importance in South Asia as it can maintain soil moisture near field capacity & appropriate air balance in the root zone of coconut throughout the dry season (Carr, 2011). In other words, drip system can be used lớn apply water and water-soluble fertilizers or chemicals in precise amount directly to lớn the root zone (e.g., fertigation) as and when required lớn match the plant needs (Jayakumar et al., năm trước,2015).

In fertigation method, nutrient use efficiency could be as high as 90% compared to only 40–60% in conventional methods (Basavaraju et al., 2014). In fertigation method, the amount of nutrients lost through leaching can be as low as 10%, whereas it can be >50% in the traditional system (Solaimalai et al., 2005). The advantage of fertigation method over conventional method of fertilizer application was also emphasized by several other works (Mmolawa và Or, 2000;Mohammad, 2004a,2004b;Shigure et al., 1999). However, there is very meager information on fertigation effects on productivity, & soil & plant nutrition of coconut in the Eastern IGP.. of South Asia, or largely in India. Keeping this in view, the present investigation was carried out to lớn determine the effect of different fertigation levels on yield, and soil and plant nutrient contents of coconut with a goal of improving the coconut productivity in the IGP of South Asia.


Experimental site, weather và year

The experiment was conducted in a 27-year-old well-established coconut palm planted during 1980–1981 & spaced at 7.5 × 7.5 m in squared pattern at the Horticultural Research Station (under All India Coordinated Retìm kiếm Project on Palms – AICRPP) of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya (BCKV), Mondouri, India, from 2007–2008 to lớn 2012–2013. The experimental site is characterized by the subtropical humid climate, situated at 23° 30ʹ 13″ N lat. & 89° 20ʹ 32″ E long. with an average altitude of 9.75 meters above sea cấp độ. Average annual rainfall during the experimental period was 1582 mm ranging from 995 milimet in 2010 to 2808 mm in 2011. Mean monthly minimum và maximum temperature over the experimental period was 22°C & 32°C, respectively. Mean monthly minimum and maximum relative sầu humidity over the period was 60% và 93%, respectively (Table 1). The soil of the experimental site is well drained clay loam with pH 6.6. The experiment was laid out in a RCBD with six treatments replicated four times: T1 – Control (no fertilizers) & water with drip irrigation; T2 – 25% of the recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) applied with drip irrigation; T3 – 1/2 of the RDF applied with drip irrigation; T4 – 75% of the RDF applied with drip irrigation; T5 – 100% of the RDF applied with drip irrigation; & T6 – 100% of the RDF applied with ring basin method of irrigation (i.e., conventional method).
Fertigation Effects on Productivity, & Soil và Plant Nutrition of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia
Apurcha Bandyopadhyay, Dipak Kumar Ghosh(LKN), Benukar Biswas, Maheswarappa Halli Parameswarappage authority & Jagadish Timsina